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欧洲大陆Europe general characteristics of terrain  

2010-07-10 09:34:58|  分类: profession |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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The mainland coastline of 37 900 million km long coastline, is the world's most tortuous coastline of a continent. Multi-peninsula, islands and harbors. The total area of the peninsula and islands, the continental area of approximately 1 / 3 (where the peninsula area of about 2.4 million square kilometers, accounting for 24% of the continent-wide area; islands, an area of approximately 75 million square kilometers, accounting for a total area of the continent-wide 7%). In addition, there are many in-depth inland mainland and the Gulf.
Terrain: Europe general characteristics of terrain is mainly plain, glacial landforms are widespread and mountains and little hills south pool, elevation 200 meters above the plateau, hilly and mountainous areas account for about 40% of all continents, including an elevation of 500? 000 meters and only 15%, elevation 2000 meters above the mountains only about 2%; the plains below 200 meters above sea level about 60% of the continental area. Continent-wide average elevation of 300 meters, is the average elevation of the lowest in a Island. European Plain, the Atlantic west coast, east to the Ural mountains, stretching thousands of miles, forming the trans-European Great Plains. Lie south of the Alps is Europe's largest mountain range. Great Caucasus Mountains in southeastern peak Elbrus Mountain, elevation 5642 meters, highest peak in Europe. The Scandinavian mountain range in northern Europe relatively flat terrain, coastal more inland, the two sides steep fjord. The north shore of the Caspian Sea lowlands in the 28 meters below sea level, the lowest point for the whole Island.
Climate: Europe has a mild and humid climate in most parts of the characteristics. Cross-latitude continental North and South 35 °, including the outlying islands, only 47 °, except in the northern coastal and Arctic islands are boreal, southern subtropical coastal areas, the almost entirely in the temperate. Temperate maritime climate is the world's most widely distributed of an Island. The western parts of Europe are not more than 700 kilometers away from the ocean, while the eastern areas furthest away from the ocean up to 1600 km, so Europe from west to east from the maritime climate transition to a continental climate. Also, because the vast plains, from the vast expanse of the Atlantic humid westerly winds can be unimpeded inland, moist air-conditioning of the temperature, a shutdown so that the whole western coast of Western European and Northern Europe a better place. Large areas of the coldest month in the 0? 16 ℃ between; hottest month average temperature over the 8? 4 ℃ between. The number and distribution of precipitation is due to the distance from the Atlantic Ocean and the prevailing wind direction of the different makes a difference. Windward slope near the Atlantic Ocean, the annual average rainfall of 1000 mm or more, the majority of low mountains, hills, plateau and plain areas, the annual average rainfall of 500? 000 millimeters between the three southern subtropical Mediterranean Sea south of the peninsula -type winter rainfall area, annual precipitation in winter precipitation accounts for about 30? 0%. Water: relatively dense network of waterways in Europe, multi-short and abundant water of rivers, many rivers and canals between the connection. Outflow region accounted for about 80.5%, of which the river flows to the Atlantic Ocean (including the inflow of the Mediterranean, the Black Sea and Baltic Sea) basin area of about 68% of the continental area; into the Arctic Ocean, about 12.5%; flow region accounted for about 19.5%, mostly into the the Caspian Sea. Main rivers are the Volga, Danube, Ural river, the Dnieper, Don, Rhine, Rh?ne River, the River Thames and so on. Europe's largest waterfall drop in Norway's ormeli waterfall drops 563 meters. European lakes and small lakes is a multi-continent, but the distribution is very uneven, mainly in the north and the Alps mountains. The European role in the formation of glacial lakes, mostly. Alpine foothills dotted with many of the larger lakes and tectonic moraine lake, mountain rivers and lakes flow through more.

自然资源Europe geological reserves

To conduct geological exploration of mineral in Europe earlier, most of the region has exploration. At present, the proven oil reserves of about 124 million tons; natural gas proven reserves of about 37 trillion cubic meters (mostly concentrated in the former Soviet Union, followed in the Netherlands, the UK and Germany); hard coal proved reserves of 4.7 trillion tons (Ukraine Dayton Bass, Poland and the Czech Republic between the Silesia, Germany, the Ruhr and the Saar, Lorraine and northern coal fields of France, the United Kingdom of England Central lend the world-famous big coal); sylvite reserves of about 640 million tonnes (more than concentrated in the former Soviet Union, Germany); iron ore reserves of 3400 million tonnes (mainly concentrated in the former Soviet Union, France, Sweden, the United Kingdom and Germany); copper metal reserves of about 7100 million tons (more than 50% of them concentrated in the former Soviet Union, followed by the distribution of the Poland); chrome ore reserves of about 3.5 billion tons. Lignite, lead, zinc, mercury and sulfur are more abundant. Albania rich in asphalt, the world famous.
Forests and grasslands: Europe's forest area totals 874 million hectares, about the world's total forest area 23%, of which the overwhelming majority of forest area in the former Soviet Union. Grassland area of about 15% of the total area of grassland in the world.
Water: Can the development of water resources could be generating an estimated annual capacity of 18 000 billion kWh, accounting for the world's water resources can be developed to 18%.
Marine Fisheries: European coastal fisheries in the coastal area of the world's fisheries account for about 32% of the total area. Rich in mackerel, anchovy, cod, salmon, eel, sardines and tuna. Fisheries are well-known Norwegian Sea, North Sea, Barents Sea, the Baltic Sea, Bay of Biscay and so on. Europe catches about 30% of the world's fish catches than any other country for Russia and Norway, followed by Spain, Denmark, the United Kingdom and Iceland.

欧洲经济Level of economic development

Level of economic development in Europe ranks first in all continents. Industrial, transportation, commerce and trade, finance, insurance, etc. in the world economy accounts for an important position in a number of areas of science and technology are at the world's more leading position. The vast majority of European countries belong to the developed countries, including the Nordic, Western and Central Europe the highest level of economic development in some countries, southern European countries is relatively low economic level. Industry the European Coal and iron mining accounted for exploitation of the world's total volume of more than 30%, mercury, potassium account for more than 60%, the main industrial sectors are iron and steel, machinery, chemicals, food. Automobiles, ships, aircraft, power generation equipment, agricultural machinery, electronic equipment, such as the world's total output of 40? 0%, Russia, Germany, France, Britain and other countries a huge scale of production. In addition, Swiss watches and precision instruments, Czech Republic and Slovakia, heavy machinery, optical instruments in Germany, Spain, shipbuilding, Sweden, shipbuilding and mining machinery, has long been known reputation in the international arena.

Agriculture: European agriculture as a secondary production sector. A high level of integration and intensification of agriculture and animal husbandry as an important characteristic. The main planting wheat, corn, potatoes, vegetables, fruits, sugar beet, sunflower, flax, etc., wheat production accounts for about 50% of world production, barley, oats or about 60%. Horticulture industry is developed, the main producing grapes and apples. Livestock rearing pigs, cattle, mainly sheep.
Europe has formed a large integrated transport networks, a high degree of development of various modes of transport, railway, highway, marine, aviation and so are very well developed. Transport industry first in the world on every continent.
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