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巴西地图,各方面的介绍(Map of Brazil)The Federative Republic of Brazil  

2010-07-10 09:38:49|  分类: profession |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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巴西联邦共和国

  葡语:República Federativa do Brasil

  英语:The Federative Republic of Brazil

  首都:巴西利亚(巴特尔城)

  面积:851.49万平方公里

  语言:葡萄牙语

  同北京时差: -11.00

  国际电话码: 55

  货币: 雷亚尔


Federative Republic of Brazil

Portuguese: República Federativa do Brasil

English: The Federative Republic of Brazil

Capital: Brasilia (Battle City)

Area: 8.5149 million square kilometers

Language: Portuguese

The time difference with Beijing: -11.00

International Telephone Code: 55

Currency: Real

【巴西概况】
巴西位于南美洲东南部,同除智利和厄瓜多尔以外的所有南美洲国家接壤,是南美洲面积第一大的国家,也是经济发展较快的国家。是世界民族大熔炉的缩影。北邻法属圭亚那、苏里南、圭亚那、委内瑞拉和哥伦比亚,西连秘鲁、玻利维亚,南接巴拉圭、阿根廷和乌拉圭,东濒大西洋。巴西在历史上作为葡萄牙的殖民地长达300年之久。其国名巴西,葡萄牙语意为“红木”。在16世纪,殖民者登上巴西时,发现这里有一种名贵的树木,从中可提取欧洲难得的红色染料,遂将此木称为“红木”后演变成国名。巴西全国面积8,547,403平方公里,国土面积约占南美洲总面积的46%,仅次于俄罗斯、加拿大、中国和美国,为世界第五大国。

Brazil is located in southeastern South America, except Chile and Ecuador, with all South American countries other than the bordering area of South America's largest country, is the rapid economic development of countries. Is the world's ethnic melting pot in miniature. North of French Guiana, Suriname, Guyana, Venezuela and Colombia, west of Peru, Bolivia, south Paraguay, Argentina and Uruguay, the East Atlantic Ocean. Brazil's history as a Portuguese colony up to 300 years. Its name to the Brazilian, Portuguese, meaning "wood." In the 16th century, the colonists boarded Brazil, found here, there is a rare trees, rare in Europe can be extracted from the red dye, then has this wood as "wood" after the name evolved into the country. Brazil's total area is 8,547,403 square kilometers, land area and accounts for about 46% of the total area of South America, second only to Russia, Canada, China and the United States, the world's fifth-largest country.

国旗
  巴西国旗为绿色长方形中央为黄色菱形,菱形中央是深蓝色圆形。圆形为天球仪,白色绶带上书以葡萄牙文“秩序与进步”。天球仪上有白色五色星,象征国家的26个行政区。绿色和黄色是巴西的国色,绿色象征森林,黄色象征矿藏和资源。
  国徽
  图案中间突出一颗大五角星,象征国家的独立和团结。大五角星内的蓝色圆面上有五个小五角星,代表南十字星座;圆环中有22个小五角星,代表巴西各州和联邦区。大五角星周围环绕着用咖啡叶和烟草叶编织的花环,背后竖立一把剑,剑柄在五角星下端。绶带上用葡萄牙文写着“巴西联邦共和国”,“1889年11月15日”巴西国徽(共和国成立日)。
  国花为毛蟹爪兰。
  国歌:Hino Nacional Brasileiro
  巴西独立后的第一首国歌,是由颇有音乐才华的佩德罗一世亲自创作的。在1822年9月7日宣告巴西独立的当天,他创作了《啊祖国,啊皇帝,啊人民》的歌曲,并亲自在当晚圣保罗的爱国集会上演唱,由合唱队伴唱,这首歌成为巴西的第一首国歌。佩德罗一世退位后,里约热内卢国立音乐学院的创办者,著名音乐家弗朗西斯科?达席尔瓦谱写出一首后来成为巴西国歌的歌曲。1909年著名诗人奥里索?杜克?埃斯特拉达重新填词,经专家委员会审查,1922年被定为巴西国歌。国歌《听伊皮兰加的呼声》回顾了1822年9月7日佩德罗一世在圣保罗郊外伊皮兰加河畔发出“不独立,毋宁死!”呼声的情景,歌颂祖国获得了独立,充满着巴西人民对祖国的爱恋之情。
  重要节日:
  日期 节假日
  1月1日 元旦日
  2月中、下旬 嘉年华会(巴西狂欢节)
  复活节前三天 耶稣受难日
  4月21日 独立英雄纪念日
  5月1日 劳动节
  圣三一主日后的星期四 基督圣体节
  9月7日 国庆日(独立日)
  10月12日 圣母显灵日
  11月2日 亡灵日
  11月15日 共和国成立日
  11月20日 神诞节
  12月25日 圣诞节
  国家政要:路易斯·伊纳西奥·卢拉·达席尔瓦 总统(2003年1月1日任职)

【巴西地理】

巴西的地形主要分为两大部分,一部分是海拔500米以上的巴西高原,分布在巴西的南部,另一部分是海拔200米以下的平原,主要分布在北部的亚马孙河流域和东南沿海。全境地形分为亚马孙平原、巴拉圭盆地、巴西高原和圭亚那高原,其中亚马孙平原约占全国面积的1/3。有亚马逊、巴拉那和圣弗朗西斯科三大河系。亚马孙河全长6751公里,横贯巴西西北部,在巴流域面积达390万平方公里;巴拉那河系包括巴拉那河和巴拉圭河,流经西南部,多激流和瀑布,有丰富的水力资源;圣弗朗西斯科河系全长2900公里,流经干旱的东北部,是该地区主要的灌溉水源。海岸线长7400多公里,领海宽度为12海里,领海外专属经济区188海里。
  其中,亚马逊平原是世界上最大的平原。圣保罗是南半球最大的城市。
  大部分地区属热带气候,南部部分地区为亚热带气候。亚马逊平原年平均气温25~27度,南部地区年平均气温16~19度。



Brazil's topography is divided into two parts, in part, elevation 500 meters above the plateau of Brazil, located in southern Brazil, the other part of the plains below 200 meters above sea level, mainly in the northern Amazon basin and the southeast coast. The whole situation into amazon basin-shaped, Paraguay basin, Brazil and Guyana highland plateau, where the Amazon plains area accounting for about 1 / 3. There is the Amazon, Paraná, and San Francisco three major river systems. Amazon length of 6751 kilometers, running through Brazil's north-west, in Pakistan valley area of 3.9 million square kilometers; Parana river systems including the Paraná River and Paraguay River, flows through the southwest, multi-rapids and waterfalls, there are abundant water resources ; San Francisco river length of 2900 kilometers, flowing through the arid northeast, is the region's main source of water for irrigation. A coastline of more than 7400 kilometers, a width of 12 nautical miles territorial sea, exclusive economic zone of 188 sea miles outside territorial waters.
Among them, the Amazon plain, is the world's largest plains. Sao Paulo is the largest city in the southern hemisphere.
In most parts of the tropical climate, the southern parts of the subtropical climate. The average annual temperature of the Amazon Plain 25 ~ 27 degrees, in the southern region the average annual temperature of 16 ~ 19 degrees.

【巴西人口】

人口概况
  大西洋沿岸人口稠密,内陆地区较为稀少。
  巴西全国人口186,957,906(2008年6月2日)居世界第5名。东南地区是巴西人口最多的地区,根据IBGE 2004年数据显示该地区人口约有7800多万,相当于巴西人口总数的42%。该地区拥有巴西三个人口最多的州(圣保罗,7000万人口,MG 1900万,里约1500万)和两个最大的城市(里约和圣保罗)。在圣保罗和里约的交界地带形成了以圣保罗、里约为支柱的商业地带,该地区聚集了约23%的巴西人口,成为该国人口密度最大的地区。
Densely populated Atlantic coast, inland areas are more scarce.
Brazil's National Population 186,957,906 (June 2, 2008) No. 5 in the world. South-east of Brazil's most populous region, according to IBGE 2004 year data showed that the region's population of about more than 7800 million, equivalent to 42% of Brazil's total population. The region has three of Brazil's most populous states (S?o Paulo, 70 million people, MG 1900 million, about 15 million years) and the two largest cities (Rio and Sao Paulo). In Sao Paulo and Rio area formed by the junction of Sao Paulo, where the pillars of the commercial area around the region gathered about 23% of the Brazilian population, to become the country's most densely populated areas.


  民族和移民
  身着盛装的卡拉雅族巴西种族和文化差异显著。南部居民多有欧洲血统,可溯源到19世纪初来自意大利、德国、波兰、西班牙、乌克兰和葡萄牙等国的移民。而北部和东北部的的居民部分是土著,部分具有欧洲或非洲血统。东南地区是巴西民族分布最广泛的地区,该地区主要有白人(主要是葡萄牙后裔和意大利后裔)混血人,非洲巴西混血以及亚洲和印第安人后代。
Carajari dressed in costumes, ethnic and cultural differences between ethnic Brazilian significant. Southern residents are of European descent can be traced back to the early 19th century from Italy, Germany, Poland, Spain, Ukraine and Portugal and other countries of immigration. While the northern and northeastern part of the population are indigenous, some have a European or African descent. Southeast region is the ethnic distribution of Brazil's most widespread, in the region are mainly white (mainly the descendants of the Portuguese and Italian descent) mixed-race people, Africa and Brazil, as well as in Asia and the Indian mixed-blood offspring.



  这样在整个巴西,巴西人,葡萄牙人和非洲人开始频繁混血。以前居住在这个地区的印第安人拥有这个地区明显的文化特征,比如黑白杂色被葡萄牙人认为是平安,并且巴西南比卡瓦拉族开始向爱磨雷族人,后来引起了一场灾难,他们开始袭击并摧毁对内部的村庄。 1532年,自从SAO VICENTE建立以后,葡萄牙人开始以殖民者的身份来到这块地方。由于18世纪采矿业的发展,葡萄牙的各州君王开始纷纷来到这里,和他们一起来的还有从非洲安哥拉和米纳来的奴隶,他们都属于非洲土著人。从第一年的殖民统治开始,黑人的比例就开始极大的增长。

So that the whole of Brazil, Brazilians, Portuguese and Africans began to frequently mixed. Before the Indians living in this region have a clear cultural identity in this region, such as black and white mottled by the Portuguese considered to be safe, and Baxi Nan began to love than Kavala ethnic tribe wear mine, and later caused a disaster, they has begun to attack and destroy the internal villages. In 1532, since the SAO VICENTE established, the identity of the Portuguese colonists began to come to this place. As the 18th century the mining industry, King of Portugal states began to have come here, and they are one up there from Africa to Angola and Mina slaves, they all belong to Africa's indigenous peoples. Starting from the first year of colonial rule, the proportion of blacks began to dramatically increase.

  19世纪,亚洲和欧洲的移民化开始受到刺激,德国人开始在1818年来到这里,1875年,意大利人,1880年西班牙人,20世纪初,日本人,叙利亚人和黎巴嫩人开始相继来到这里。19世纪末20世纪初,在东南地区发生了巴西最巨大的移民潮流,意大利人和葡萄牙人成为这次移民中的主要组成部分,因为那个时候开始了奴隶解放运动,当时种植园以及刚刚兴奇的巴西工业都需要大量的劳动力。
The 19th century, Asian and European immigrants began to receive stimulation of the German people began coming here in 1818, 1875, Italian, 1880 Spanish, early 20th century, Japanese, Syrians and Lebanese began to come here one after another . The late 19th century early 20th century, in the South East region has witnessed the greatest migration trends in Brazil, Italian and Portuguese immigrants to become the major component, because at that time began the slave's liberation movement, when the plantations and the just-xing qi Brazilian industries are labor intensive.


  巴西历史上曾有过几次大的移民浪潮,仅1884至1962年间迁居巴西的移民即达497万多人,主要来自葡萄牙、西班牙、意大利、德国、法国、波兰和阿拉伯国家。黄种人多来自日本、朝鲜和中国。巴有130万日本人,25万华人,主要集中在圣保罗和里约热内卢。
Brazil's history there have been several major waves of migration, only between 1884 to 1962 immigrants moved to Brazil, which amounts to 4.97 million people, mainly from Portugal, Spain, Italy, Germany, France, Poland and the Arab countries. Huang kinds of people come from Japan, Korea and China. Pakistan has 130 million Japanese, 25 million ethnic Chinese, mainly in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro.

  人口种族构成
  由于历史原因,巴西人口的种族构成十分复杂。大西洋沿岸人口稠密,内陆地区较为稀少。种族和文化差异显著。其中, 白人占49.4%, 混血人口占42.3%, 非洲裔黑人占7.4%, 亚裔占0.5%, 土著人约占0.5%, 混血人口及黑人人口增长较快。在巴西,不同种族,多种肤色的人生活在一起,组成了一幅绚丽多彩的画面。印第安人是巴西最早的居民。16世纪以来,葡萄牙、西班牙、意大利、德国等欧洲国家的移民进入到巴西。随着巴西种植园的兴起和矿区的开采,从1532年起,葡萄牙开始从非洲大量贩运黑奴到巴西。到1822年巴西独立前,黑人已占巴西人口的60%。19世纪以后,又有一些中国人和日本人移居到巴西。因此巴西有人种大熔炉之称。
Due to historical reasons, the Brazilian population's ethnic composition is very complicated. Densely populated Atlantic coast, inland areas are more scarce. Ethnic and cultural differences significant. Among them, whites accounted for 49.4%, mixed-race population accounts for 42.3%, blacks accounted for 7.4% of African Americans, Asians accounted for 0.5%, indigenous people account for about 0.5%, mixed-race population and the black population grew rapidly. In Brazil, different races, a variety of color, people living together to form a colorful picture. The earliest inhabitants of the Indians of Brazil. Since the 16th century, Portugal, Spain, Italy, Germany and other European countries, migrants to Brazil. With the rise of Brazil's plantations and mines, mining, from 1532 onwards, the Portuguese began a large number of trafficking of slaves from Africa to Brazil. To 1822 before the independence of Brazil, blacks account for 60% of the Brazilian population. After the 19th century, there are some Chinese and Japanese emigrated to Brazil. Therefore, some kinds of Brazil, known as a melting pot.

 

 

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